NEB Biology Syllabus

NEB Biology Grade XI Syllabus

I. Introduction

Biology, being the science of nature, deals the fascinating changes, which continuously takes place in the living world. Every person is expected to understand the nature of which is a part. One needs to be familiar with the changes taking place in nature. The study of biology equips an indvidual, to understand the living world in the light of new researches. Besides realizing the general objectives of any discipline of science like development of scientific temper and anlytical skill, the curriculum in biology has also to be geared to meet the requirement of careers in the field of medicine and related disciplines (wildlife, forestry, agriculture, natural resources, environment, etc). This course is designed for general science (Biological and physical) students of Grade XI.

II. General Objectives

The general objectives of this course are:

  • to provide the concept of biology and encourage the learners to use the acquired knowledge in day to day life,
  • to make the learners aware of the present development in the biological science as well as
  • to develop the knowledge and skill in the wise use of the available natural resources and sustaining them; and
  • to prepare the students to take up advance studies in biology at university level.

III. Specific Objectives

On completion of the course the students will be able to:

  • describe the life components, origin of life and its evolution up to present day;
  • explain the cell components, their types and cell division
  • explain diversity of plant and animal
  • discuss functional processes of the typical animal types
  • describe the environmental concept, ecological imbalances and their consequences; and
  • explain importance of natural resources, their conservation and management with reference to national context.


Total Teaching Hours: 75 Hours, Total Marks: 37.5

Unit 1 : Introduction to Biology- 5 teaching hour (3 Marks)

  • Biochemically important organic and inorganic molecules (general concepts): Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, nucleic acid, minerals and water.

Unit 2 : Cell Biology- 15 teaching hour (8 Marks)

  • The cell: The cell as a unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, Structure and functions of cell organelles and inclusions.
  • Cell division: Amitosis, mitosis, meiosis

Unit 3. Biodiversity- 40 teaching hour (18.5 Marks)

Definition and scope of biodiversity, flora diversity of Nepal, concept of taxonomy: classification, binomial nomenclature, shortcoming of two kingdom classification, hierarchic system in classification, phylogeny. Five kingdom classification: Monera, protista, Mycota, Plantae and Animalia.

  • Monera: General account, structure and function of bacterial cells, concept of autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles, economic importance of bacteria.
  • Cyanobacteria: Nostoc- Structure, reproduction and economic importance.
  • Mycota: Concept of Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes. Structure and reproduction of Zygomycetes (Mucor), Ascomycetes (Yeast). Economic importance of fungi.
  • Plantae:
    • Algae: Introduction to green, red and brown algae, structure and reproduction of Spirogyra.
    • Bryophyta: Marchantia and Funaria (morphology and life cycle).
    • Pteridophyta: Dryopteris (morphology and life cycle)
    • Gymnosperm: Brief morphological structure of Cycas and pinus structure and it’s distribution.
    • Angiosperm: Morphology: root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit and seed relevant to the following families. Taxonomy and economic importance of the following families; Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Solanaceae,
    • Leguminosae- Papilionoidae only, Compositae (Asteraceae) and Gramineae (Poaceae)
    • Lichen: Introduction and economic importance.
    • Virus: Structure and economic importance.

Unit 4: Biota and their Environment- 15 teaching hour (8 Marks)

  • Ecology: Definition, abiotic, biotic factors and their interactions
  • Concept of ecosystem, Pond and grassland ecosystems: structural and functional aspects; food chain, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, concept of community and succession.
  • Bio-geochemical cycle: carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle.
  • Ecological imbalance and its consequences: Green house effects, depletion of ozone layer and acid rain
  • Concept of mountain ecosystem (altitudinal and climatic changes)
  • Conservation:
    • Forest conservation: Brief introduction of forests of Nepal, importance of afforestation and hazards of defrorestation
    • Management of land and water


Total Marks: 12.5 Marks

  1. Use and maintenance of compound microscope.
  2. Study of museum specimen and slides.
    1. Types of bacterical cells;
    1. Spirogyra filaments;
    1. Mucor: Culture to demonstrate mycelium and sporangium; culture of yeast cells;
    1. Study of vegetative and reproductive structure of Marchantia, Funaria, Dryopteris, Pinus.
  3. Study of different stages of mitotic and meiotic cell division through permanent slides and chart.
  4. Preparation of temporary slide to study cell structure: Onion scale leaf, leaf of Geranium or Zebrina or Tradescantia or any other locally available leaf.
  5. Description of following plants in semi-technical terms with their floral diagrams and formulae and identification and economic importance of at least one plant from each of the following families:
    1. Cruciferae (Brassicaceae)
    1. Solanaceae
    1. Leguminosae- Papilionoidae only
    1. Compositae (Asteraceae)
    1. Gramineae (Poaceae)
  6. Study of fresh water ecosystem using an aquarium or pond showing food chain.
  7. Study of morphological adaptations of the hydrophytes, mesophytes and Xerophytes.
  8. Field study: Collection identification of plants and animals from local area; preservation of collected organisms in suitable preservatives and maintain a record. The students are also advised to observe different types of environmental pollution during their field study (Jointly with zoology Dept).
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Total Teaching Hours: 75 Hours, Total Marks: 37.5

Unit 1: Introduction to Biology- 5 teaching hour (2 Marks)

  • Nature and scope of Biology
  • Branch and relation with other sciences
  • General approach to understand life processes.

Unit 2 : Origin and evolution of life- 20 Teaching hour (10 Marks)

  • Life and its origin
  • Theories of origin of life
  • Oparin and Haldane’s Theory
  • Miller and Urey’s experiment
  • Meaning of evolution, organic evolution
  • Evidences of evolution, structural, anatomical, paleontological, Embyrological & Biochemical
  • Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism
  • Human evolution

Unit 3: Biodiversity- 35 teaching hour (17.5 Marks)

Meaning of biodiversity, faunal diversity of Nepal.

  • Protista: Characteristics and classification of phylum protozoa upto class with examples; Habit and habitat, structure, reproduction and lifecycle of Paramecium and Plasmodium vivax (a concept of P. falciparum)
  • Animalia: General characters and classification of the following phyla (upto class) with examples- Porifera, coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata.
  • Earthworm (Pheretima posthuma): Habit and habitat, structure; digestive, excertory, reproductive and nervous systems. Economic importance.
  • Frog (Rana tigrina): Habit and habitat, structure; digestive, circulatory, respiratory, Reproductive anf nervous system.Economic importance.

Unit 4: Biota and their Environment- 15 teaching hour (8 Marks)

  • Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil. Sources of pollution, their effects and control measures. Hazards of pesticides.
  • Animal behaviour: Taxes, reflexes and reflex action, dominance and leadership migratory behaviour of fish and bird.
  • Adaption: Animal: Aquatic, amphibious and terrestrial (arboreal and volan)
  • Conservation:
    • Wildlife conservation: Meaning of wildlife, importance of wildlife, meaning of rare, threatened, vulnerable and endangered species, few endangered species in Nepal.
    • Conservation practices (National parks, wildlife reserves and hunting reserves) ways of conservation and causes of extinction.
    • Human responsibility for the protection of earth.


Total Marks: 12.5 Marks

  1. Study of permanent slide and museum specimen: Paramecium, Plasmodium, Sycon, Hydra, Fasciola(liver fluke), Taenia (Tape worm), Ascaris(Round worm), Pheretima(Earthworm), Hirudinaria(leech), Palaemon(Prawn), Cancer(Crab), Periplaneta (Cockroach), Pieris(Butterfly), Bombyx(Moth), Aranea (Spider), Palamnaeus (Scopion), Scolopendra (Centipede), Julus (Millipede), Helix (Garden Snail), Astereas (Starfish), Labeo (Rohu fish), Rana (Frog), Bufo (Toad), Hemidactylus (walllizard), Chelone (turtle), Columba (pigeon), Rhinolophus (Bat) and Funambulus (Squirrel)
  2. Preparation of temporary slide and their study:
    1. Striated muscle fibre(thigh) of frog.
    1. Setae and ovary of earthworm
    1. Squamous epithelial cell of human cheek.
  3. Study of histological structure through permanent slides of skin, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, testis and ovary of frog.
  4. Study of adaptational features of a primary aquatic animal (Labeo), Secondary aquatic animal (Turtle), arboreal (Calotes, Tree frog), primary volant (pigeon or other birds) and secondary volant (Flying fish, Bat)
  5. Dissection of animal provided so as to expose their
    1. Earthworm: General anatomy, alimentary canal, nervous system and reproductive organs.
    1. Frog: General anatomy, alimentary canal, arterial and venous systems, reproductive
      organs and brain.

NEB Biology Grade XII Syllabus

1. Introduction

Biology for Grade XII builds on the foundation of Biology and seeks to students’ knowledge and practical understanding of the life process. It inculcates theoretical understanding, practical work out and analytical thinking. This course is designed to make the students better prepared for further studies in biological sciences.

2. General Objectives

The general objectives of this course are:

  • to provide the concept of biology and encourage the learners to use the knowledge in day to day life,
  • to make the learners aware of the present development in the biological science with reference to genetics, physiology and human biology, and
  • to prepare the students to take up advanced studies in biology at university level and encourage learners to be familiar with elementary knowledge of biotechnology and to work in the field of health, agriculture and industrial sectors.

3. Specific Objectives

On completion of the course, the students will be able to:

  • describe the plant and animal tissue types and anatomical structure of higher plants as well as their functional processes;
  • explain the developmental processes of typical plant and animal types;
  • explain the structure of human body-organs and systems;
  • discuss the role of hormones controlling various organs;
  • describe common and socially significant human diseases;
  • explain elementary genetics and its use in some technical fields; and
  • describe the application of biology in health, agriculture and various industrial sectors.


Total Teaching Hours: 75 Hours, Total Marks: 37.5

Unit 1: Anatomy and Physiology of Organisms- 27 Teaching hours (13.5 Marks)

  • Plant anatomy: Types of tissues, meristematic and permanent tissues; Internal structure of dicot and monocot root, stem and leaf; Secondary growth of dicot stem.
  • Plant physiology:
    • Water relation: Osmosis, diffusion, ascent of sap and transpiration.
    • Photosynthesis: Site of photosynthesis, mechanism and factors affecting photosynthesis.
    • Respiration: Types of respiration, mechanism and factors affecting respiration.
    • Growth: Plant growth hormones: Auxins, Gibberellin, Cytokinin.
    • Plant movement: Concept of growth and turgor movement.
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Unit 2: Genetics- 32 Teaching hours (15 Marks)

Elements of heredity and· variation; Genetic material (DNA and RNA), Genetic code, Gene pool, Genetic expression and its regulation; Basis of Mendelian genetics, Mendel’s laws of inheritance, Concept of incomplete dominance and codominance, Multiple gene, Linkages, Crossing over, Mutation and its types and polyploidy, Sex-linked inheritance (X-linked gene for eye color of Drosophila and color-blindness in man)

Unit 3: Developmental Biology- 10 Teaching hours (5 Marks)

Reproduction and development of angiosperms – Asexual reproduction, Pollination, Development of male and female gametophyte, Fertilization and development of embryo (dicot and monocot).

Unit 4: Application of Biology- 8 Teaching hours (4 Marks)

  • Introduction to biotechnology, tissue culture, concept of breeding technique, Disease resistant plants, green manures.
  • Genetic engineering and its application
  • Fermentation technology: alcoholic and antibiotic fermentation.


Total Marks: 12.5 Marks

1. Experiments on plant physiology

  • Experiment to demonstrate the process of osmosis.
  • Experiment to demonstrate the process of ascent of sap.
  • Experiment to demonstrate the unequal transpiration from two surfaces of dorsiventral
  • Experiment to demonstrate the rate of transpiration by Ganong’s potometer.
  • Experiment to demonstrate that the chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis.
  • Experiment to demonstrate that the carbon dioxide is essential for photosynthesis.
  • Experiment to demonstrate the process of evolution of Oxygen during photosynthesis.
  • Experiment to demonstrate the aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
  • Study on effect of growth hormones on germination and shoot elongation,
  • Demonstration of plant tissue culture.
  • Demonstration of yeast culture.
  • Preparation of DNA model.

2. Demonstration of Mendalian genetics using maize cob:

  • To demonstrate segregation of characters in a monohybrid cross.
  • To demonstrate independent assortment of characters in a dihybrid cross.

3. Study the permanent slides of different types of simple, permanent and complex plant tissues.

4. Demonstration of vegetative propagation.

5. Study the permanent-slides of:

  • T.S of anther.
  • L.S of ovule of dicot plant
  • Structure of embryo.

6. Preparation of temporary slide of following plant materials:

  • T .S of dicot root, stem and leaf
  • T.S. of monocot root, stem and leaf.


Total Teaching Hours: 75 Hours, Total Marks: 37.5

Unit 1: Animal tissues- 5 teaching hour (2 Marks)

  • Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.

Unit 2: Developmental Biology- 6 Teaching hour (3 Marks)

  • Development of frog: Fertilization, cleavage, morulation, blastulation, gastrulation formation of germinal layers, coelom and tissue formation.
  • Gametogeneisis in animal.

Unit 3: Human Biology and Health- 50 Teaching hour (24.5 Marks)

  • Nutrition; digestive organs and digestion of food.
  • Respiratory organs and mechanism.
  • Circulation: Blood, heart and its action, arterial and venous systems (Major arteries and veins). Blood groups, Rh-factor, Blood pressure and lymph (definition).
  • Excretion: Excretory organs, mechanism of urine formation, osmoregulation and homeostatic mechanism (temperature regulation kidney and liver control system).
  • Nervous co-ordination: Types of nervous system, structure and function of brain, Transmission of nerve impulse.
  • Endocrinology: Structures, functions and disorders of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas and adrenal glands.
  • Sense organs: Structure and function of eye and ear.
  • Reproduction: Reproductive organs.
  • Human population: Growth, problem and control strategies.
  • Human Diseases:
    • Socially significant: Drug abuse, alcoholism and smoking
    • Communicable: Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Ascariasis and AIDS.
    • Non-communicable: Cancer.
    • Concept of kalazar and hepatitis.

Unit 4: Application of Biology- 11 Teaching hrs (6 Marks)

  • Antibiotics Vaccines (Type and application)
  • Tissue and organs transplantation
  • Test-tube baby
  • Amniocentesis
  • Introduction to poultry farming and fish farming.


Total Marks: 12.5 Marks

1. Experiments of Biochemistry

  • Experiment to demonstrate the action of saliva on starch.
  • Experiment to detect the presence of starch in a given solution.
  • Experiment to detect the presence of sugar in urine.
  • Experiment to detect the presence of protein in a given solution (hen’s albumen).
  • Study the effect of temperature, ethyl alcohol, and pH on enzymatic action of saliva.
  • Measurement of human blood-pressure with sphygmomanometer.

2. Study the permanent slides of different types of animal tissues:

  • Squamous, columnar, cuboidal, areolar, adipose, hyaline and bone.

3. Study the permanent slides of following histological organs of mammal:

  • Skin, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas, kidney, lung, testis and ovary.

4. Study of embryological permanent slides of frog:

  • Cleavage, blastula and gastrula.

5. Study the bones of rabbit (articulate and disarticulate) or models of humanbones.

6. Dissection of a mammal so as to expose its:

  • General anatomy;
  • Alimentary canal;
  • Arterial and venous systems;
  • Brain;
  • Reproductive organs.

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